Showing posts with label wireless. Show all posts
Showing posts with label wireless. Show all posts

What Are Industrial Control Systems?

Control systems are computer-based systems that are used by many infrastructures and industries to monitor and control sensitive processes and physical functions. Typically, control systems collect sensor measurements and operational data from the field, process and display this information, and relay control commands to local or remote equipment. In the electric power industry they can manage and control the transmission and delivery of electric power, for example, by opening and closing circuit breakers and setting thresholds for preventive shutdowns. Employing integrated control systems, the oil and gas industry can control the refining operations on a plant site as well as remotely monitor the pressure and flow of gas pipelines and control the flow and pathways of gas transmission. In water utilities, they can remotely monitor well levels and control the wells’ pumps; monitor flows, tank levels, or pressure in storage tanks; monitor water quality characteristics, such as pH, turbidity, and chlorine residual; and control the addition of chemicals. Control system functions vary from simple to complex; they can be used to simply monitor processes—for example, the environmental conditions in a small office building—or manage most activities in a municipal water system or even a nuclear power plant.

In certain industries such as chemical and power generation, safety systems are typically implemented to mitigate a disastrous event if control and other systems fail. In addition, to guard against both physical attack and system failure, organizations may establish back-up control centers that include uninterruptible power supplies and backup generators.

There are two primary types of control systems. Distributed Control Systems (DCS) typically are used within a single processing or generating plant or over a small geographic area. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems typically are used for large, geographically dispersed distribution operations. A utility company may use a DCS to generate power and a SCADA system to distribute it.

A control system typically consists of a “master” or central supervisory control and monitoring station consisting of one or more human-machine interfaces where an operator can view status information about the remote sites and issue commands directly to the system. Typically, this station is located at a main site along with application servers and an engineering workstation that is used to configure and troubleshoot the other control system components. The supervisory control and monitoring station is typically connected to local controller stations through a hard-wired network or to remote controller stations through a communications network—which could be the Internet, a public switched telephone network, or a cable or wireless (e.g. radio, microwave, or Wi-Fi) network. Each controller station has a Remote Terminal Unit (RTU), a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), DCS controller, or other controller that communicates with the supervisory control and monitoring station. The controller stations also include sensors and control equipment that connect directly with the working components of the infrastructure—for example, pipelines, water towers, and power lines. The sensor takes readings from the infrastructure equipment—such as water or pressure levels, electrical voltage or current—and sends a message to the controller. The controller may be programmed to determine a course of action and send a message to the control equipment instructing it what to do—for example, to turn off a valve or dispense a chemical. If the controller is not programmed to determine a course of action, the controller communicates with the supervisory control and monitoring station before sending a command back to the control equipment. The control system also can be programmed to issue alarms back to the operator when certain conditions are detected. Handheld devices, such as personal digital assistants, can be used to locally monitor controller stations. Experts report that technologies in controller stations are becoming more intelligent and automated and communicate with the supervisory central monitoring and control station less frequently, requiring less human intervention.

Network Backbone Basics: Hubs, Bridges, Switches, and Gateways

Network Backbone Basics
As the process industry steadily moves to wireless networking components, its important to understand the basics. This post and the video below describe four key backbone components for data networking.

Signal flow and data transfer are assisted within a network by various devices known as backbones. The four different backbone devices are hubs, bridges, switches, and gateways. Each device transports data in a specific way.

A hub is a centralized connecting device. Often located at a center of a star network that automatically rebroadcasts any signal or data that it receives from one device to all other devices on the network. Because all the devices connected to a hub are competing for media usage, it's possible for collisions to occur when two devices send transmissions simultaneously. For this reason, it's important to avoid using a hub for messaging that requires immediate response.

Another network backbone device is called a bridge. Network bridges are smart devices that process and record information about signal traffic between devices in the networks. The bridge then uses this information to determine the most efficient path for data transfer, between a transmitting and a receiving device, without having to send it to every device in the network.

A switch is a multi-port network bridge that uses packet switching to forward data to one or multiple specific devices. Because more than one transmission can occur at a time, switch operating speeds are very fast. Switches are also full duplex devices that allow data signals to flow simultaneously in both directions. This eliminates the risk of data collisions that may occur in other network backbone devices.

When two segments of the same network have different communication formats a gateway is needed to connect them. A gateway performs a conversion function so that a computer on an Ethernet network using a TCP/IP protocol may communicate with a PLC on a subnet using the ControlNet protocol. Even though these two protocols are incompatible, the gateway can connect them on the same network and allow them to function together. Hubs, bridges, switches, and gateways - the backbones of networking - perform individual and important functions in keeping networks performing at their highest level.

https://analynk.com
(614) 755-5091

Wireless for Safety

Wireless systems may be useful to enhancing the safety profile within a factory operation. These systems can be used to prevent injury through improved communication and enhanced situational awareness within the factory. Wireless safety systems are used in many applications including those designed to prevent chemical handling mishaps, avoid heavy equipment accidents such as “struck-by, and back-over” incidents, prevent falls through active position monitoring and safety interconnects, provide situational awareness within confined spaces, and improve safety for non-employees.

Along with adaption of wireless sensor networks for industrial automation, there are more applications of wireless technology created by users after they are more familiar and comfortable with the wireless technology. Also because of the strong benefits of wireless applications that can save project execution time and cost, more and more wireless has been used for secondary or backup systems for time-critical application such as safety or control applications. Based on this movement, ISA-84 working group (WG) 8 developed a technical report on wireless for safety systems other than those of a safety integrated system (SIS), i.e., those systems with a system integrity level (SIL) rating below ten. The technical report describes the additional elements needed to be addressed when wireless technology is used in an Independent Protection Layer (IPL). Refer to the ISA technical report TR84.00.08-2017 Guidance for Application of Wireless Sensor Technology to Non-SIS Independent Protection Layers for more information.

Reprinted from "Guide to Industrial Wireless Systems Deployments" by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Get your copy here.

Analynk A75x RF Industrial Wireless DIN System

Analynk A75x
Analynk A75x
The Anaynk A75x series offers simplicity and reliability in a point to point, multipoint or wireless mesh system. One A753 transmitter can communicate with multiple A750 receivers for redundancy. A repeater can be added simply by placing in between a transmitter and receiver, no programming is required. Three radio options are available: long range 900MHz 1W, 900MHz 50mW and 2.4GHz 63mW. In addition to transmission of the industry standard 4-20mA, our transmitters can directly process thermocouples, RTD and switch states. Up to 32 inputs may be transmitted with one transmitter when the A753 is paired with our A16000 expansion module.

MODEL NUMBERS:
  • A750 Receiver
  • A750-Mod (RS232/485)
  • A753 Transmitter
  • A759 Repeater
  • A753-PL Transmitter (pulse)
  • A750-PL Reciever (pulse)
  • A753-LP Transmitter (900MHz 50mW)
  • A750-LP Receiver (900MHz 50mW)
FEATURES:
  • 35mm DIN rail mount
  • Standard 1W long range output, optional 50mW & 63mW
  • Removable 2.0dBi dipole antenna
  • DIP switch selectable channels
  • Signal Strength indicator
  • Repeaters available
  • No software required
  • Factory configured for your application
APPLICATIONS:
  • Remote 4-20mA installation
  • Redundant 4-20mA outputs
  • Temperature monitoring
  • Tank level monitoring
  • Remote switch monitor
  • Pulse transmission
  • Remote alarms
  • Rotating devices (e.g. kilns)
  • Temporary 4-20mA
For more information, contact Analynk Wireless by visiting https://analynk.com or by calling (614) 755-5091.

Wireless Temperature Monitoring System Assures Safety in Firefighter Training Facility

firefighting training building burn building
Firefighters training at a burn building
Courtesy Fire Facilities
Fire Facilities designs and manufactures live firefighting training towers and buildings, referred to as burn buildings. Firefighters train in these structures honing their personal skills and developing team strategies for combating fires under live burn conditions. The training, because of the live fire in the structure, can be dangerous. Procedures and equipment are in place to minimize the risk posed to the training professionals.

Analynk Wireless designed and manufactures part of the safety and monitoring system for the Fire Facilities training structures. The system is suitable for worldwide use, as are the training structures. Sixteen temperature monitoring locations are established in the structure and monitored using the pyrometer developed by Analynk. The monitoring station provides alarm notification if the temperature in any of the monitored zones exceeds the level at which trainees can safely enter the area.
  • Monitor up to 16 channels of thermocouple input
  • Local temperature display on touchscreen HMI
  • Audible and flashing local alarm, plus relay contacts for connection of external devices
  • WiFi connection to smart phone or tablet for remote viewing of all operating information
  • Data logging of each channel to USB drive
  • Cloud connection for view access from anywhere with an internet connection
  • Email and text alerts
  • Monitoring station has NEMA 4 rating and is suitable for installation and operation in environments to -40 degrees
The Fire Facilities Pyrometer is another example of Analynk's capabilities in designing and building engineered products for specific applications. Share your process control product development challenges with the experienced professionals at Analynk, combining your concept with their design and engineering expertise to develop top flight product solutions.
pyrometer fire facilities

Battery Powered Transmitter for Industrial Wireless Communication

battery powered wireless transmitter in explosion proof enclosure for industrial process control
Battery powered wireless process signal transmitter
in explosion proof enclosure
Industrial settings can present difficult or unique challenges to automation and control designers. Each new challenge seems to be met with a new, improved, or adapted product which fulfills the requirements.

Analynk's standard array of wireless transmitters operate on 24 Vdc. For installations without any appropriate power source, three models are configured to operate on power provided by batteries. The A753-BT transmitters operate on battery power, utilizing a real time clock to schedule transmission intervals appropriate for the application. The transmitter also provides an excitation voltage for external devices. Your sensor's 4-20 mA output provides input to the Analynk transmitter, along with two discrete switches. The transmitter communicates with all of Analynk's receivers.

The unit pictured is configured for use in a hazardous area, with explosion proof enclosure. Other models are suitable for DIN rail mounting in an enclosure of your selection, or provided preconfigured in a NEMA 4 enclosure.

Share your wireless process control connectivity challenges with the experts at Analynk.